December 19th, 2014
By Kelly Sowell, Elmwood Historian
This past Saturday, some graduates of our Stone College classes were invited to volunteer in the cemetery. Volunteers Lisbeth Redden and Maryellen Eaves, as well as former Elmwood Historian and Stone College instructor Dale Schaefer joined me Saturday afternoon to raise the monument of Benjamin Ward Avent. His cradle marker was almost completely sunken. Only a very small piece of stone was visible but we were certain that it was part of a cradle since all the other graves in that family lot had them.
The first thing we did was use a probe to determine that it was an adult sized marker. We used plastic hand trowels to clear the thin layer of dirt just above the stone away. Then we loosened and dug out all the dirt around the perimeter of the stone. Once we’d dug deep enough to reach the base of the stone, we used a long pry bar as a lever to raise one side at a time. The stone had shifted somewhat as it sunk and settled, so we realigned it with the rest of the monuments in the family lot and made sure it was level.
Finally we filled in the dirt in and around the cradle. We rinsed and brushed the dirt from the stone, but decided not to use cleaning solution. Since all the rest of the stones in the family lot have a patina, we didn’t think this one should be bright and clean. We did however use solution to clean the inscription on the front of the marker so it would be easier to read.
We have no way of knowing for sure how long the stone had been sunken and obscured, but now it can be easily located again. Capt. Benjamin Ward Avent served in the Confederate Army, as did his father, Dr. Benjamin Ward Avent. He later owned a dry goods store in Hickory Hollow, Mississippi. One evening while he was in his store, a man entered to inform him there was a band of thieves nearby who might intend to rob the store. Avent and a small party of other men armed themselves and waited, but the thieves never showed. Though his store was not robbed, Avent decided to track down who he thought was responsible for the recent thefts in his town. A man named Reynolds had previously been driven from town for theft, so Avent went to pay him a visit. Reynolds’ wife told him that her husband was not home, but Avent forced his way in the front door. Reynolds was in fact home, and ready to attack. As Avent forced his way inside, he was shot with a double barreled shotgun in the face and chest. He wasn’t killed immediately, but made it to a friend’s home where he later died from his injuries. He now rests here at Elmwood Cemetery in the South Grove section, and his monument can once again be seen thanks to our volunteers.
December 16th, 2014
The Anderson-Coward House, located at the corner of Coward Place and East Street near Elmwood, has strong ties to the cemetery. Almost every owner of the house through its history is interred here at Elmwood. In 1842, Mrs. Mildred Moon Anderson acquired three acres of land between the Memphis and Charleston Railroad and Pigeon Roost Road, now E. H. Crump Blvd., which were two of the busiest transportation routes for the city at the time. It is unclear when the structure was originally built, as possible dates vary from 1843 to 1852.
Though it is considered to be Italianate Style, there are some architectural features that are unusual of this style. It is possible that the original structure was built around 1843 in a simplified Federal Style. Mrs. Anderson, and her husband Major Nathaniel Anderson, probably added the Italianate Style embellishments around 1851 when the style was fashionable. Their listed residence in City Directories was on Union until that building burned down in 1850, so it would make sense if they wished to update the house that would become their main residence.
The home was designed in the shape of an L with the service wing forming the extension in the rear. The rear service wing may have been added in the 1850s. The bricks used to build the house were fired on site and are faced with stucco that is scored to imitate ashlar masonry. The features that make it stand out as Italianate, such as the brackets under the roofline and the caps over the windows and door, are elegantly ornamented.
This elegant, if simple, house is fitting for a man such as Nathaniel Anderson. He and his wife moved to Memphis from Virginia in 1823 and Mr. Anderson subsequently opened the City Hotel, which was considered to be the first true hotel in Memphis. Primarily he was a successful cotton broker and banker. He served in the Mexican American War during 1846. When he returned to Memphis, he founded the Farmer’s and Merchant’s Bank, serving as the first president. He was also the first president of the Memphis Chamber of Commerce, then known as the Businessman’s Club. Anderson sold the home on Coward Place in 1856 due to ill health and retired to his plantation south of Memphis.
H. M. Grosvenor became the next owner of the estate. He came to Memphis around 1845 from Massachusetts, established a business in furniture sales and became quite successful throughout the 1840s and 1850s. His success is evident in the large ads he took out in newspapers and City Directories. Grosvenor’s business suffered greatly with the onset of the Civil War and was further hurt by the death of his wife in 1864. He was forced to mortgage his house in 1866 to raise money for a new business, the Southern Carpet Store.
William D. Coward was a prosperous planter who mortgaged the home for $7,000 and took possession in 1867. The next year he deeded it to his son Samuel Holliday Coward, the lawyer who was the trustee for the mortgage agreement, for legal services rendered in obtaining the property. He married Ida C. Carroll in 1874 and during their ownership, extensive additions were made to the house including some infill of the L-shaped plan. By the turn of the century, Memphis had annexed what is now Midtown. The Coward and Johnston families gave in to the pressure of surrounding suburban development and slowly allowed their land to be incorporated into the city’s grid of streets. Coward Place was the old drive from Pigeon Roost Road and was once the only road on the property.
Upon the death of Ida Coward, Samuel Coward’s widow, in 1904, their only daughter Elizabeth Coward inherited the property. Elizabeth and her husband Richard O. Johnston, who became the president of Commercial & Industrial Bank, occupied the house throughout their marriage until Mrs. Johnston died in 1953. Then the property changed hands a couple of times, sitting vacant in 1955, until it was purchased by Dayton and Justine Smith in 1957. The Smiths are undoubtedly the most famously known of all the house’s owners. They operated Justine’s restaurant in a warehouse on Beale and bought the property on Coward Place with the intentions of relocating their restaurant.
The Smiths spent over a year restoring and renovating the house for the opening of the restaurant in 1958. Their goal was to renovate the house for commercial use while retaining the architectural and historical integrity of the building. Justine’s became locally famous for its New Orleans-style French food and was run by its namesake, Justine Smith, for 37 years until she retired at the age of 82. Since the restaurant closed its doors, the building has sat vacant. It was boarded up sometime around 2008 to prevent break-ins and vandalism, but the building is in serious need of repair and restoration. Hopefully someone will step in soon to give the house the attention it needs to help preserve its rich history.
Major Nathaniel Anderson and his wife Mildred Moon Anderson are buried in the Fowler section at Elmwood. H. M. Grosvenor is located in the Chapel Hill section. Samuel Holliday Coward, Ida Carroll Coward, Elizabeth Coward Johnston, and Richard Oliver Johnston are all located within the same family lot in Lenow Circle. Justine and Dayton Smith are within the Turley section.
November 13th, 2014
You may have seen in recent local news about a house that was being moved but ran into several problems. The process of relocating the Nelson-Kirby Farm House to make room for development began on October 27th. The house made a couple stops along the way due to a broken axle and a broken crankshaft on the moving truck.
The house that took 3 days to move was the Nelson-Kirby Farm House. It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1986. The house was partly named for the Kirby family, several members of which now reside at Elmwood Cemetery. Wilks Brooks, who owned a plantation nearby, developed the house for his son.
In its history, the property operated as the area’s first polling place and post office, as well as the first place to obtain a marriage license. At the turn of the century, John Kirby owned and operated over 8,000 acres in the region and the Farm House was the headquarters for his land holdings. Kirby Parkway in East Memphis is named for John A. Kirby as well.
The house was originally located at Kirby Farms, located off Poplar Pike in Germantown, and now sits about a mile south of there. The original tract of land was so large that the new location is within the boundaries of the old farm. Though no one knows a definite date of construction of the house, the structure is more than a century old. It was probably quite simple when constructed, but due to additions by multiple owners, it now has Italianate and Queen Anne features.
Thomas A. Nelson purchased the property in 1868, a year after a Yellow Fever epidemic in Memphis. The house’s remote location provided his family with an escape from the city during times when the disease was epidemic and people thought it could be spread from person to person. John Anderson Kirby bought the farm from Nelson in 1898.
John A. Kirby was born in Virginia in 1842. He came to Memphis in 1860 to enter the wholesale grocery business. He enlisted with the “Shelby Grays,” the pro-Southern 4th Tennessee Infantry Regiment organized in Shelby County in 1861 that was part of the state’s provisional army before the Civil War officially began. Kirby fought at Belmont and Shiloh. He was captured at Missionary Ridge in November 1863 and spent the rest of the war imprisoned at Rock Island prison in Illinois. By the time the Civil War ended, he was one of the few surviving members of the Shelby Grays. After the war, John Kirby married Ann Eliza Brooks, descendent of Wilks Brooks who developed the farm and house where they would later live.
The land around the house was developed and sold off, but descendants of John Kirby have lived in the house since he bought it. John Kirby and his wife Ann Eliza are both buried in the Lenow Circle section at Elmwood.
October 8th, 2014
Not all Memphians are familiar with the Slave Haven museum at the Burkle Estate in downtown at 826 North Second Street. Jacob Burkle, who is buried at Elmwood in the Chapel Hill section, was a German immigrant from Schemeden. He fled to America seeking a freer way of life after the failed German Revolution of 1848-9. Burkle owned the city’s first stockyard. The house at the Burkle Estate was built in the 1850s, overlooking his stockyards. Today his house is a museum featuring portraits of slaves and slave trading advertisements that aims to teach visitors about the atrocity of slavery and the secret world of the Underground Railroad.
According to local legend, the house was a stop along the Underground Railroad. Some historians debate that there is truth behind the legend, but both sides will argue that the lack of primary evidence supports their argument. The lack of evidence could mean that it never was a stop along the Underground Railroad, but it would be unsurprising for there to be no remaining evidence since it would have been a very secretive operation which could get someone killed if discovered. Supposedly, the only documents which could have verified the legend were burned by Burkle’s great granddaughter.
It is believed, by some, that the cellar beneath the house, accessible through the parlor, was used as a place to hide slaves. The estate is only three blocks from the Mississippi River and according to legend there was a tunnel to the river which has since been blocked off. An archaeological survey found no evidence of a tunnel, but engineers say that a tunnel would have been possible in the type of soil found at the estate. One possibility is that there was a naturally occurring trench from the house to the river that Jacob Burkle bricked over forming a tunnel which is no longer visible.
Whether the Burkle Estate actually served as a safe house for escaped slaves or not, the Safe Haven museum teaches a lasting lesson about slavery in this country. Though it is likely we will never know the truth about the Burkle Estate, the folklore will live on.
September 3rd, 2014
Col. Robert Galloway played an important role in beautifying and enriching Memphis. He was a businessman who started out working for the Southern Railway, and later owned his own local coal company which made him a wealthy man. He made a significant contribution to The Home for Aged Women, which was opened in 1896 by the Willing Hands Circle of the Kings Daughters. When it was time for them to expand, they purchased a new lot at Monroe and Manassas costing about $1,100 for the land and the new building. Galloway paid off their debts and the Home was renamed the Mary Galloway Home in honor of his first wife.
Col. Robert Galloway obviously loved the outdoors. Not only was he an officer for the Memphis Boat Club, he was a member of the first Memphis Park Commission in 1901 and later became chairman. Through his efforts, the land for Overton Park was acquired and the parkway system established. He played a big part in developing and improving Overton Park. In 1904 he had a pavilion erected near the east end so the public could enjoy free concerts throughout the summer months. Also in 1904, a Southern black bear named “Natch” went to live in Overton Square, chained to a tree. He was the mascot for the Memphis Turtles baseball team. Galloway had the idea to build a home for Natch, and several other wild animals which had ended up at the Park, Galloway presented the city with a plan to form a Zoo. After a few attempts to establish a Zoo, the Memphis Park Commission allocated $1,200 to establish the Memphis Zoo in 1906. In the beginning Galloway used his own personal funds to care for the animals. Later the Memphis Zoo Association held fundraisers for the animals and for improvements. By 1907, the first building, named Galloway Hall, was built at the Zoo. If not for Col. Robert Galloway, we may not have our top-rated Zoo that is such an asset to the city today.
In 1908, Galloway began construction on Paisley Hall near the new Zoo at 1822 Overton Park. Finished in 1910, it is a beautiful example of Greek Revival architecture. Much of the interior was imported from Europe. Now commonly known as the Galloway Mansion, Elvis was interested in purchasing it before he settled at Graceland. The house still stands at Overton Park, but Col. Robert Galloway now resides here at Elmwood.